Factors Causing Social Inequality

Factors Causing Social Inequality
4. Demographic Factors
Demographic conditions indicate the level of growth and population structure, education level, health level, differences in employment conditions, as well as all matters relating to the population. Differences in the demographic conditions of an area can cause social inequality due to differences in community work productivity in each region.

5. Geographical Location and Conditions
The location and geographical conditions of Indonesia affect the level of development of a society. People who live in the lowlands generally find it easier to build a variety of infrastructure, while people who live in the highlands need a long time and process of development because of constrained natural conditions that are uphill and uneven. Declining income per capita.
Unequal development between regions.
Low social mobility.
Pollution of the Natural Environment.

6. Poverty
According to Lewis (1983), a culture of poverty can manifest in a variety of historical contexts, but is more likely to grow and develop in a society that has a set of conditions:
(1) Money economic system, wage labor and production system for profit
(2) the high unemployment and underemployment rates for unskilled workers
(3) low labor costs
(4) the failure of low-income groups to increase their social, economic and political organizations voluntarily or on government initiatives
(5) the bilateral family system is more prominent than the unilateral system, and
(6) the strength of a set of values in the ruling class that emphasizes the accumulation of wealth and the possibility of vertical mobility, and economical attitude, as well as the assumption that the low economic status as a result of personal inability or basically already low position.
Culture of poverty is not only an adaptation to a set of objective conditions of the wider community, once the culture has grown, it tends to perpetuate itself from generation to generation through its influence on children. Culture of poverty tends to develop when economic and social systems that are multi-layered are damaged or changed, Poverty culture is also a result of colonialism, that is, the economic and social structure of the indigenous people is broken down, while the status of indigenous groups is maintained low, it can also grow in the process of tribal abolition. The culture of poverty tends to be owned by the community as well as lower social, isolated communities, and victims who come from landless agricultural laborers.
According to Parker Seymour and Robert J. Kleiner (1983) the formulation of a culture of poverty includes the understanding that everyone involved in the situation has low aspirations as a form of realistic adaptation.

Some characteristics of poverty culture are:
(1) fatalism,
(2) low levels of aspiration,
(3) low willingness to pursue goals,
(4) not seeing personal progress,
(5) feelings of helplessness / inadequacy,
(6) Feelings to always fail,
(7) Feelings of self-evaluation are negative,
(8) Choice of position as a manual worker, and
(9) A sad level of compromise.

Relating to culture as a function of adaptation, it is an undertaking
to change these unwanted values in a direction that is in line with the values of the middle class, by using psychiatric methods of social-educational welfare without first (or simultaneously) trying to significantly change the reality of reality. social structures (income, employment, housing, and cultural patterns limit the scope of social participation and distribution of social power) will tend to fail. Culture of poverty does not originate from ignorance, but rather functions for adjustment.
Structural poverty according to Selo Sumarjan (1980) is poverty that is suffered by a group of people because the social structure of the community cannot participate in using the income sources that are actually available to them. Structural poverty is an atmosphere of poverty experienced by a community whose main cause is derived from the social structure, and therefore can be sought at the social structure that applies in the community itself.